It was one of my assignment when i was took a master degree in UI, btw.. this article is not truly my thought, I also cite from other source and sharing document that already published in others journal. I post in this blog just to hope that someday an open mind and visionary government can see & consider this article and realize that we really need air transportation as the primary infrastructure to support our country and our people to explore their own country.. just hope..
Indonesia is one of the largest archipelagos countries in the world that has 17,508 islands. To connecting all this islands need the transportation system that can serve national necessity. We need transportation that not only fast but also can reach all the area to support socioeconomic activities. Therefore the air transportation is the best choice to solve this problem. Because in that vast archipelagos, there are at least 440 Districts/Cities that most of the air transportation needs, particularly in passenger transportation. In this globalization era, aviation transportation becomes the key to Indonesia’s economically improvement to support goods & service movement system in local, regional & international scale.
Aviation transportation in Indonesia is managed by Directorate General of Civil Aviation Ministry of Transportation. They made the regulation for airport management, and airlines service. This directorate has the authority to determine the worthiness of airport and airplane which the stipulated based on research and investigation.
Infrastructure for air transportation divides into 2 segment, airline and airport. Based on PKPS/CASR 121 there are 30 airlines service company that serve in Indonesia. All airlines should be able to meet the requirement of the regulation that government has established. This regulation includes standard requirement, certification process, supervision, and law enforcement. Certification process includes the certification for the organization that run their business in air transportation, the certification for the person who in charge in airlines service, and the certification for aeronautical product.
In airport infrastructure Indonesia has 187 airports which include 7 first class airport, 5 second class airport, 15 third class airports, 14 fourth class airports, 28 fifth class airports and 118 sixth class airports. Based on government regulation in 2008 no. 26 determined that airport as national air transportation nodes divides by 3 spreading centers. 8 airports classified as primary spreading centers, 16 airports classified as secondary spreading centers, and 41 airports classified as tertiary spreading centers. As a member of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Indonesia should obey the result from Chicago convention in 1944. Based on Annex 11 Air Traffic Services all member have the obligation to provide guiding air traffic service in their own territory to ensure the safety of air traffic and to prevent all accident in air transportation. Therefore Indonesia has provided 33 airport that equipped for night take off/landing facility and also couples unit for RADAR, instrumentation for landing system, and other equipment for guiding the air transportation system.
The Politic of Aviation Transportation in Indonesia
The developing air transportation can not be separated from socioeconomic, politic, defense and security development as influential strategic environment. Therefore Indonesia has its regulation to protect and developing the air transportation.
In socioeconomic development, the liberalization and globalization has forced government to reduce the retribution, protection, and intervention in air transportation. According to aviation act no. 1 year 2009 clause 84 Indonesian government also applied cabotage act which is every air transportation for commercial matters can only conduct by domestic airlines service company. This clause can protecting national airlines service company from globalization competition with another international airlines service company. However with the existence of ASEAN Open Sky agreement which will be conducted on 2015 forced the national airlines service company to compete with other airlines service company from ASEAN nation. this agreement also forced government to provide adequate facility for air transportation and develop the national airlines service company to be able to compete with other international airlines service company. Government has also launched to open 5 international airport as free airport.
In defense and security development government has also made the regulation in Government Regulation no. 3 year 2001 which in these regulation has been set the safety regulation for the airport, the airline and the personnel who in charge in air transportation. This regulation adopted from the Convention on International Civil Aviation in 1944 at Chicago. In defense development, air transportation is useful as a tool to facilitate the mobilization the national defense and security.
With the strategic geographic position, many flight route pass through Indonesia’s territory. This circumstance can become our advantages also disadvantages. Therefore the air transportation management shall managed centralized and integrated. This concept has proclaimed by Indonesian government to maintaining the territorial integrity of Indonesia.
My Perception about the Sector Development
The challenge that we must face it from air transportation is not only how to fulfill the safety requirement which had determined by ICAO but also how air transportation can develop the area which the airport occur. The additional support facilities such as cargo terminal, road access or train route from city to airport, and integrated city transportation shall provided by government to develop the economic growth in that area.
Developing air transportation in defense and commercial area can not be combined because in commercial area, air transportation development no longer has to be centralized. With the Indonesian territory that stretched wide, the management from central can not cover the comprehensive and sustainable development in rim land area
With the open sky agreement government supposed to find the best system to apply in air transportation system. Hub and feeder one of the way to build the system. The 5 airport that has already proclaimed by government to become the free airport should be the hub airport which can spread the air transportation route to feeder airport.